Villadsen, A. (2015). Parenting Self-Efficacy before and after the Family Links 10-Week Nurturing Programme for Parents.
Using the reliable Tool to Measure Parenting Self-Efficacy (TOPSE), parents looked at 8 different dimensions to understand the level of self-efficacy(self-belief) in their parenting. The 8 dimensions include: emotion and affection, play and enjoyment, empathy and understanding, control, discipline and boundary setting, pressures of parenting, self-acceptance, and learning and knowledge. Findings showed that the levels of self-efficacy in parenting greatly increased after attending the Programme, with significant and positive changes across all 8 dimensions.